Pretty good Xernicus. Yeah the last one there is a little tricky. Here is the long version of the Win32 question.
Prior to Windows 98 the actual useage of Windows was just a GUI. All the programs were 16 bit DOS programs.
Win98 actually opened the door for 32 bit software creation for Win2000. Win 2k was a true 32 bit software OS but win98 actually used dual
16 bit pathways to emulate 32 bit production. When the software people saw this they began to write programs that did not need the whole
programming language as DOS programs did. DOS was standalone, but Win98 allowed Windows to have imbedded programming that did all
the work of opening ports and stuff. So Windows did all of that, but the program made the connections as needed. Like this. Windows has the
language for opening a port to print, so the program doesn't have to include all that scripting, all it needs is a small code to say "Do the print thing".
So WIndows and the program share programming, like putting your fingers together from one hand to the other. They mesh together to form one
The answer to the ISP node question is actually pretty simple. The size of pipe your ISP gives you. Most of us run on 100MBps still, because your ISP
still limits you to less than that. A single optic cable can actually send and receive about 10GBps. So when you buy a portion of that, you get what you
pay for. If you want 20MB down, that will be about $35 to $40 a month. So that is what controls the amount of data you receive from an ISP node.
Now in the old days, it used to be controlled by the modem on each end, which was the data pack stream controller. Which is the answer to the handshaking
question. Handshaking is still used today to allow you to talk to a data controller so that it knows what language you are going to use, and how much data
you can accept, and where you are. You send your ID to them, they send their ID back to you. Once this is done, you have made a secure connection and the
pipe is opened and data can flow back and forth now. Without the handshake it would be like a Russian trying to talk to a Frenchman to tell him to pass the salt
from one closed room to the other. I hope that makes sense.
Data bit packing on the HDD. The best way to describe this is like being a controller in a train yard. You have to build a train and then get it ready to go onto the
main line and get from your location to another location in tact. And when it gets there, the other controller must have a logbook showing what cars are in the train,
and the name of the train that is pulling them. Every allocated area on a HDD has a beginning number and an ending number. When you write a program or data
to the HDD the HDD controller knows how big each packet of data is and allocates it to a numbered area on the HDD. Each data area is usually 4k big. So when it
gets 4k or less data, it puts it in that data area and then sends the start number and end number of that allocated area to the controller which writes it down into Windows.
When all the data is written, that allocation table is given to Windows and to the controller on the HDD. When you click on data or a program exe file, Windows asks the
HDD for that data. It gives the HDD the number of the tablet in the allocation file that it wants to have the HDD retrieve. This tablet has all the numbers of the allocated
data sectors on the HDD that hold data for that request. It then, sends that tablet number back to Windows. If the two numbers match, then the HDD reads the area and
transfers the data into a memory allocated area that Windows controls. Once all the data is placed into proper memory area, Windows launches the exe file to opening it.
Why is it important to know this? There are two different error codes that can happen when the computer does the data transfer and write to and from the HDD from
Windows. One error is a Windows control error, the other is a HDD controller error. IF you know these two errors, you have just cut down the time you need to find
out why data is being corrupted or a program is not working correctly. The next step is find out if the control chip on the motherboard that accesses the HDD is good
or not, or if it is the controller on the HDD. That is a simple test. Once you find out, then you replace the defective part, clear the error out of Windows and check it out.
Knowing this stuff just makes it faster and easier to diagnose a computer problem.
Hope you had fun.
Edited by Ol' Smoke, 30 September 2013 - 01:25 PM.